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Home bullet DSS bullet Decision Support System - Planning (DSS-P)
 
 
bullet Decision Support System - Planning (DSS-P)
bullet Real Time Decision Support System (RTDSS)
Decision Support Systems   bullet   Decision Support System - Planning (DSS-P)
 
Introduction:
A DSS provides the Water Management Authorities with a structured, user friendly, practical and complete water resources management information system.
 
DSS allows users to analyse hydrologic data, run hydrologic simulation models, run basin water allocation models and study the effect of potential decisions. It is designed to access or display hydrologic data, to model dynamic hydrologic conditions, and to determine the ability of the river system to meet future demand based on operational and administrative use of storage. It allows decision makers to assess the impact of potential decisions by using “What if” scenarios.
 
Example applications of a DSS include:
  • Seasonal reservoir planning
  • Planning a new reservoir or transfer
  • Reservoir sedimentation
  • Drought management
  • Combined management of reservoirs and water transfers
  • Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater
  • Groundwater recharge and over-exploitation
  • Increased efficiency of water management in general including factor such as crop selection, canal seepage, reservoir operation and the competition between domestic, industrial and agricultural water demands
  • Water quality
 
The main components of a DSS are illustrated in Figure 1.
 
Figure 1: Simplified components and data flows in the DSS.
 
Simplified components and data flows in the DSS
 
 
Core Functionality :
There are six components (or core functions) to the DSS:
  • A Hydrometeorological Information System and database
  • Analysis and modelling
  • Scenario management
  • Decision support
  • Presentation and dissemination
  • System configuration
 
The relationships between these components are illustrated in Figure 2.
 
Functional components of a DSS
Figure 2: Functional components of a DSS
 
Some of the modeling tools that are used for DSS include:
  • MIKE HYDRO
  • TA Temporal Analyst
  • MIKE 11
  • MIKESHE
 
As well DHI products other proprietary software and models developed by States (including spreadsheet based models) have been included in the DSS.
 
Participating States and Central Agencies
 
State Central Agency
Andhra Pradesh National Institute of Hydrology (NIH)
Chhattisgarh Central Water Commission (CWC)
Gujarat Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
Karnataka Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS)
Kerala India Meteorological Department (IMD)
Madhya Pradesh Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)
Maharashtra  
Orissa  
Tamil Nadu  
 
Examples of the issues identified by each agency in IHP-2 where a DSS can be of real value are listed below.
 
States Issues
Andhra Pradesh (Middle Godavari Basin)
  • Combined management of reservoir and water transfers
  • Providing water for all sectors considering the increasing demands
  • Balancing head-end and tail-end abstraction along irrigation canals
  • Crop selection and corresponding water requirement
Chhattisgarh (Upper Mahanadi Basin)
  • Tank operation in dry years
  • Conjunctive use of surface and ground water
  • Demonstrate benefits of changes in cropping pattern
  • Support decision on canal lining
Gujarat (Mahi Basin)
  • Increased efficiency of water management in general
  • Combined operation of reservoir in dry, normal and flood conditions
  • Improving conditions for the population in drought prone areas
  • Reduced periods of inundation in low-sloping command areas
Karnataka (Palar Basin)
  • Drought management
  • Indentifying recharge areas
  • Determining impacts of over exploitation of GW
Karnataka (Tungabhadra Command area)
  • Fertilizer pollution of groundwater
  • Water logging at head-end and scarcity at tail-end canals
Kerala (Bharathapuza Basin)
  • Efficient management of water resources
  • Suitable water management in dry years
  • Potential hydropower production
  • The impact of GW of measure to mitigate the effect of sand mining
  • Environmental flows
Madhya Pradesh (Wainganga Basin)
  • Assessment of water resources availability
  • Assess the impact on water availability from infrastructure rehabilitation
  • Increased efficiency of water management in general
  • Crop selection, particularly in dry years
Maharashtra (Bhima Basin)
  • The project area is severely drought prone and GW over exploited
  • Increasing competition between domestic and agricultural water demand
  • Evaluating reservoir operation to minimize the effect of drought
  • Evaluating reservoir operation to minimize the effect of flooding
  • Assessing the water pollution on Ujjain from upstream irrigation, municipal and industrial waste
Orissa
  • Conjunctive use in irrigated area
  • Mitigating water logging through increased GW pumping
  • Changing cropping pattern
  • The impact of inter-basin transfer or additional surface storage
Tamil Nadu (Agniyar Baisn)
  • Severe water shortage and competing sectors
  • Inter-basin transfer of water to Agniyar basin
  • Determining impacts of over exploitation of GW
Tamil Nadu (Tamirparani Basin)
  • Multipurpose multi reservoir operation
  • River pollution
  • Drought management in some area
Tamil Nadu (Vaippar Basin)
  • Severe water shortage and competing sectors
  • Inter-basin transfer
  • Conjunctive use
  • Water quality problems
CPCB
  • Has selected Brahmani River as case study under DSS (P) as water quality is emerging in this basin and may become severe in near future.
 
The Upper Bhima, Maharashtra
 
The Upper Bhima was selected as the pilot basin for the DSS Planning Project considering the data availability, the range of water resources problems in the basin. The distribution of water in the Bhima is an on-going concern for Maharastra
 
The purpose of applying the DSS to the Upper Bhima basin was to consider the following issues:
  • The project area is severely drought prone and GW over exploited
  • Increasing competition between domestic and agricultural water demand
  • Evaluating integrated reservoir operation to minimize the effects of drought and flooding.
  • Conjunctive use.
  • Assessing the water pollution on Ujjani from upstream irrigation, municipal, and industrial waste
 
A river basin model (MIKE BASIN now transferred to MIKE HYDRO) was developed for the Upper Bhima. The area was divided in 30 sub-catchments for the surface water and 70 sub-catchments for groundwater modelling. A major effort was made to process the hydro-meteorological and to calibrate rainfall-runoff models, so that long time series of runoff and groundwater recharge could be generated for each sub-catchment.
 
The rainfall-runoff model (NAM) requires rainfall data of stations in or near the catchment area, evapotranspirationdata and discharge data at the outlet of catchment, either as assessed reservoir inflowor as measured discharge at a river gauging station. The calibration period was selected such that allthese time series data sets are available.
 
In cases where it was difficult to achieve a good calibration emphasiswas given to ensuring a correct water balance and distribution of high and lowflows, so that the generated series can be considered representative for the area.
 
The calibrated models were applied to generate long time series (1970 to 2009) using the available rainfall and evapotranspiration data. The runoff series for each catchment was then prepared as a combination of the measured surface runoff and the NAM generated flow.
 
Two example applications are given below. For a full explanation of all applications see the Interim Report Volume II.
 
Drought monitoring
 
The DSS includes a Dashboard Manager, which can generate web-sites to illustrate the water re-sources situations in different ways (see Figure 9-3 below).
 
Example DSS web site that showsthe current groundwater levels and rainfall
Figure 9-3 Example DSS web site that showsthe current groundwater levels and rainfall
 
The colour coding of the watersheds indicate the post-monsoon groundwater level compared to the previous five years while the colour of therain gauges (squares) indicate the deviation of the annual rainfall from normal. The visitor to this web page can plot rainfall and groundwater levels at each station / watershed.
 
Seasonal Groundwater Planning
 
The Government of Maharashtra also requested a facility to predict the likely development of the groundwater levels once the post-monsoon levels have been measured. This application was tested using the BM-61 GSDA watershed. The simulated level variation, starting at the post-monsoon level, is shown for five years in comparison with the observed level (Figure 9-4).
 
Test predictions of the groundwater level development in watershed BM61
Figure 9-4 Test predictions of the groundwater level development in watershed BM61 (meter below ground level) with given assumptions concerning the water use for domestic and agricultural purposes.
 
Artificial Recharge
 
The potential of increasing groundwater availability through a range of artificial infiltration structures was tested for a selected watershed. In a scenario of increased water demands from groundwater, the depth to groundwater was simulated over a 40 year period to indicate the sustainability of this utilization with and without the proposed artificial recharge (see Figure 9-5)
 
Simulated groundwater depth with and without artificial infiltration
Figure 9-5 Simulated groundwater depth with and without artificial infiltration
 
The simulations indicate that increased draft will only be sustainable with the artificial recharge in place. Note that an analysis based only on the recent, relatively wet, years would have given the false impression that increased groundwater pumping would be possible also without the artificial recharge.
 
Links
 
A link to a library of all DHI reports
 
http://mikebydhi.com/